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<title>Day 3 - Advent of Code 2021</title>
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</head><div id="readability-page-1" class="page"><article><h2>--- Day 3: Binary Diagnostic ---</h2><p>The submarine has been making some <span title="Turns out oceans are heavy.">odd creaking noises</span>, so you ask it to produce a diagnostic report just in case.</p>
<p>The diagnostic report (your puzzle input) consists of a list of binary numbers which, when decoded properly, can tell you many useful things about the conditions of the submarine. The first parameter to check is the <em>power consumption</em>.</p>
<p>You need to use the binary numbers in the diagnostic report to generate two new binary numbers (called the <em>gamma rate</em> and the <em>epsilon rate</em>). The power consumption can then be found by multiplying the gamma rate by the epsilon rate.</p>
<p>Each bit in the gamma rate can be determined by finding the <em>most common bit in the corresponding position</em> of all numbers in the diagnostic report. For example, given the following diagnostic report:</p>
<pre><code>00100
11110
10110
10111
10101
01111
00111
11100
10000
11001
00010
01010
</code></pre>
<p>Considering only the first bit of each number, there are five <code>0</code> bits and seven <code>1</code> bits. Since the most common bit is <code>1</code>, the first bit of the gamma rate is <code>1</code>.</p>
<p>The most common second bit of the numbers in the diagnostic report is <code>0</code>, so the second bit of the gamma rate is <code>0</code>.</p>
<p>The most common value of the third, fourth, and fifth bits are <code>1</code>, <code>1</code>, and <code>0</code>, respectively, and so the final three bits of the gamma rate are <code>110</code>.</p>
<p>So, the gamma rate is the binary number <code>10110</code>, or <code><em>22</em></code> in decimal.</p>
<p>The epsilon rate is calculated in a similar way; rather than use the most common bit, the least common bit from each position is used. So, the epsilon rate is <code>01001</code>, or <code><em>9</em></code> in decimal. Multiplying the gamma rate (<code>22</code>) by the epsilon rate (<code>9</code>) produces the power consumption, <code><em>198</em></code>.</p>
<p>Use the binary numbers in your diagnostic report to calculate the gamma rate and epsilon rate, then multiply them together. <em>What is the power consumption of the submarine?</em> (Be sure to represent your answer in decimal, not binary.)</p>
</article><p>Your puzzle answer was <code>4006064</code>.</p><article><h2 id="part2">--- Part Two ---</h2><p>Next, you should verify the <em>life support rating</em>, which can be determined by multiplying the <em>oxygen generator rating</em> by the <em>CO2 scrubber rating</em>.</p>
<p>Both the oxygen generator rating and the CO2 scrubber rating are values that can be found in your diagnostic report - finding them is the tricky part. Both values are located using a similar process that involves filtering out values until only one remains. Before searching for either rating value, start with the full list of binary numbers from your diagnostic report and <em>consider just the first bit</em> of those numbers. Then:</p>
<ul>
<li>Keep only numbers selected by the <em>bit criteria</em> for the type of rating value for which you are searching. Discard numbers which do not match the bit criteria.</li>
<li>If you only have one number left, stop; this is the rating value for which you are searching.</li>
<li>Otherwise, repeat the process, considering the next bit to the right.</li>
</ul>
<p>The <em>bit criteria</em> depends on which type of rating value you want to find:</p>
<ul>
<li>To find <em>oxygen generator rating</em>, determine the <em>most common</em> value (<code>0</code> or <code>1</code>) in the current bit position, and keep only numbers with that bit in that position. If <code>0</code> and <code>1</code> are equally common, keep values with a <code><em>1</em></code> in the position being considered.</li>
<li>To find <em>CO2 scrubber rating</em>, determine the <em>least common</em> value (<code>0</code> or <code>1</code>) in the current bit position, and keep only numbers with that bit in that position. If <code>0</code> and <code>1</code> are equally common, keep values with a <code><em>0</em></code> in the position being considered.</li>
</ul>
<p>For example, to determine the <em>oxygen generator rating</em> value using the same example diagnostic report from above:</p>
<ul>
<li>Start with all 12 numbers and consider only the first bit of each number. There are more <code>1</code> bits (7) than <code>0</code> bits (5), so keep only the 7 numbers with a <code>1</code> in the first position: <code>11110</code>, <code>10110</code>, <code>10111</code>, <code>10101</code>, <code>11100</code>, <code>10000</code>, and <code>11001</code>.</li>
<li>Then, consider the second bit of the 7 remaining numbers: there are more <code>0</code> bits (4) than <code>1</code> bits (3), so keep only the 4 numbers with a <code>0</code> in the second position: <code>10110</code>, <code>10111</code>, <code>10101</code>, and <code>10000</code>.</li>
<li>In the third position, three of the four numbers have a <code>1</code>, so keep those three: <code>10110</code>, <code>10111</code>, and <code>10101</code>.</li>
<li>In the fourth position, two of the three numbers have a <code>1</code>, so keep those two: <code>10110</code> and <code>10111</code>.</li>
<li>In the fifth position, there are an equal number of <code>0</code> bits and <code>1</code> bits (one each). So, to find the <em>oxygen generator rating</em>, keep the number with a <code>1</code> in that position: <code>10111</code>.</li>
<li>As there is only one number left, stop; the <em>oxygen generator rating</em> is <code>10111</code>, or <code><em>23</em></code> in decimal.</li>
</ul>
<p>Then, to determine the <em>CO2 scrubber rating</em> value from the same example above:</p>
<ul>
<li>Start again with all 12 numbers and consider only the first bit of each number. There are fewer <code>0</code> bits (5) than <code>1</code> bits (7), so keep only the 5 numbers with a <code>0</code> in the first position: <code>00100</code>, <code>01111</code>, <code>00111</code>, <code>00010</code>, and <code>01010</code>.</li>
<li>Then, consider the second bit of the 5 remaining numbers: there are fewer <code>1</code> bits (2) than <code>0</code> bits (3), so keep only the 2 numbers with a <code>1</code> in the second position: <code>01111</code> and <code>01010</code>.</li>
<li>In the third position, there are an equal number of <code>0</code> bits and <code>1</code> bits (one each). So, to find the <em>CO2 scrubber rating</em>, keep the number with a <code>0</code> in that position: <code>01010</code>.</li>
<li>As there is only one number left, stop; the <em>CO2 scrubber rating</em> is <code>01010</code>, or <code><em>10</em></code> in decimal.</li>
</ul>
<p>Finally, to find the life support rating, multiply the oxygen generator rating (<code>23</code>) by the CO2 scrubber rating (<code>10</code>) to get <code><em>230</em></code>.</p>
<p>Use the binary numbers in your diagnostic report to calculate the oxygen generator rating and CO2 scrubber rating, then multiply them together. <em>What is the life support rating of the submarine?</em> (Be sure to represent your answer in decimal, not binary.)</p>
</article><p>Your puzzle answer was <code>5941884</code>.</p></div>